The use of alternative reaction solvents is reviewed in terms of life cycle. Supercritical CO2, ionic liquids, fluorous solvents, water, and renewable organics are compared on the basis of their solvency, ease of use, reusability, health and safety, environmental impact, and economic cost.
James H. Clark * and Stewart J. Tavener
Green Chemistry Centre, Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York, U.K. YO10 5DD
Org. Process Res. Dev., 2007, 11 (1), pp 149–155
Publication Date (Web): November 4, 2006
This article critically reviewS the use of alternative solvents in chemistry. Rather than follow the well-trodden path of discussing in turn the reactions that have been performed in each major type of alternative solvent, we will instead structure our article in terms of what we consider to be the fundamental issues: life cycle analysis (so as to establish the “green” and sustainability aspects from the outset), solvency (so as to consider what is needed in the application and how the alternatives manage to meet these needs), and application (to consider practical issues in both process and product).