IONIC LIQUIDS, USES

 

Ionic liquids are very popular materials and they enjoy a plethora of applications in various domains of physical sciences.
For example, they are used as “solvents” for organic, organometallic syntheses and catalysis, as electrolytes in electrochemistry, in fuel and solar cells, as lubricants, as a stationary phase for chromatography, as matrices for mass spectrometry, supports for the immobilization of enzymes, in separation technologies, as liquid crystals, templates for the synthesis of mesoporous, nano-materials and ordered films, materials for embalming and tissue preservation, etc.

Here is provided a map of the applications of ionic liquids.

IL's Applications Map

    • Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst 
      For some applications, ionic liquids offer the advantage of both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. This is because selected ionic liquids can be immiscible with the reactants and products but dissolve the catalysts.
      “This has the advantages of a solid for immobilizing the catalyst, with the advantages of a liquid for allowing the catalyst to move freely”
      Robert Morland, first major U.S. meeting on ionic liquids, held at the American Chemical Society meeting in San Diego.

      The French Petroleum Institute, in Paris, have commercially licensed an ionic liquids-based process that uses these properties for preparing polybutene dimers used in plastics, automobile tires, and related materials.

    • Biological reactions media 
      “Enzymes are also stable in ionic liquids, opening the possibility for ionic liquids to be used in biological reactions, such as the synthesis of pharmaceuticals”
      James Davis,first major U.S. meeting on ionic liquids

      In 2000, chemical ingeneers from the University of Pittsburgh, in Pensylvania, used enzymes in an ionic liquid to synthetize Z-aspartame, a precursor of the artificial sweetener.
      Rhodococcus R312, a whole-cell biocatalyst, also works in ionic liquids.

Physical propertiesScientists involved with ionic liquids also belive that they will be used for completely new applications, for example:

  • Treatment of high-level nuclear waste
    “Ionizing radiation does not affect ionic liquids, so they could even be used to treat high-level nuclear waste”
    Ken Seddon,first major U.S. meeting on ionic liquids
  • Removing of metal ions 
    In another application, Davis and Rogers have designed and synthetized several new ionic liquids to remove cadmium and mercury from contaminated water. When these water-insoluble ionic liquids come in contact with contaminated water, they snatch the metal ions out of waterand sequester them in the ionic liquid.

  • Purification of gases 
    Moreover,
    “Ionic liquids can selectively dissolve and remove gases and could be used for air purification on submarines and spaceships”
    Davis, first major U.S. meeting on ionic liquids

1.Renner, R., “Ionic Liquids: an Industrial Cleanup Solution”. Environmental Science & Technology, 2001 Oct 1, 35(19), 410A-413A.
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3.Welton, T., “Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids. Solvents for Synthesis and Catalysis”. Chem.Rev.199999(8), 2071-2084.
4.Visser, A.E.; Swatloski, R.P.; Reichert, W.M.; Mayton, R.; Sheff, S.; Wierzbicki, A.; Davis, J.H:; Rogers. R.D., “Task-Specific Ionic Liquids Incorporating Novel Cations for the Coordination and Extraction of Hg2+ and Cd2+: Synthesis, Characterization, and Extraction Studies”. Environ.Sci.Technol., 2002,36(11), 2523-2529.
5.Yang, Q.; Dionysiou, D.D., “Photolytic Degradation of Chlorinated Phenols in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids”. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, A: Chemistry2004165(1-3), 229-240.
6.Dupont, J., “On the Solid, Liquid and Solution Structural Organization of Imidazolium Ionic Liquids”. J.Braz.Chem.Soc.,200415(3), 341-350.
7.http://homepages.strath.ac.uk/~bas97101/
8.http://www.pnl.gov/emsp/fy2003/presentations/rogers_robin_81891.pdf
9.http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20010908/bob10.asp
10.Kolle, P.; Dronskowski, R., “Synthesis, Crystal Structures and Electrical Conductivities of the Ionic Liquid Compounds Butyldimethylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate, Hexafluorophosphate and Hexafluoroantimonate”. Eur.J.Inorg.Chem.200411, 2313-2320.
11.http://www.scionix.co.uk/html/ionic_liquids.html
12.http://pb.merck.de/servlet/PB/menu/1341610/
13.Anastas, P.T.; Warner, J.C..Green Chemistry Theory and Practice, Oxford University Press, New York, 1998.
14.http://www.epa.gov/greenchemistry/docs/general_fact_sheet.pdf
15.http://www.biolab.it/htmbank/ita/rivista/green_chem.pdf
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17.Atkins, M.P.; Davey, P.; Fitzwater, G.; Rouher, O.; Seddon, K.R.; Swindall, J.,Ionic Liquids: A Map for Industrial Innovation, Report Q001, January 2004, QUILL, Belfast (2004).
18.Magee, J.W.; Kabo, G.J.; Frenkel, M.,”Physical Property Measurements and a Comprehensive Data Retrieval System for Ionic Liquids”. 226th ACS National Meeting, New York, NY,September 07-11, 2003.
19.www.ionicliquids-merck.de
20.Antony, J.H.; Mertens, D.; Breitenstein, T.; Dolle, A.; Wasserscheid, P.; Carper, W.R., “Molecular Structure, Reorientational Dynamics, and Intermolecular Interactions in the Neat Ionic Liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium Hexafluorophosphate”. Pure Appl. Chem., 2004, 76(1), 255-261.
21.Kolle, P.; Dronskowski, R., “Hydrogen Bonding in the Crystal Structures of the Ionic Liquid Compounds Butyldimethylimidazolium Hydrogen Sulfate, Chloride, and Chloroferrate(II,III)”. Inorg.Chem.2004, 43, 2803-2809.

 
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